Tag Archives: devsecops

Your Pets Don’t Belong in the Cloud

At too many organizations, I’ve seen a dangerous pattern when trying to migrate to public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) i.e. Cloud. It’s often approached like a colo or a data center hosting service and the result is eventual failure in the initiative due to massive cost overruns and terrible performance. Essentially, this can be attributed to inexperience on the side of the organization and a cloud provider business model based on consumption. The end result is usually layoffs and reorgs while senior leadership shakes its head, “But it worked for Netflix!”

Based on my experience with various public and hybrid cloud initiatives, I can offer the following advice.

  1. Treat public cloud like an application platform, not traditional infrastructure. That means you should have reference models and Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) templates for the deployment of architecture and application components that have undergone security and peer reviews in advance. Practice “policy as code” by working with cloud engineers to build security requirements into IaC.
  2. Use public cloud like an ephemeral ecosystem with immutable components. Translation: your “pets” don’t belong there, only cattle. Deploy resources to meet demand and establish expiration dates. Don’t attempt to migrate your monolithic application without significant refactoring to make it cloud-friendly. If you need to change a configuration or resize, then redeploy. Identify validation points in your cloud supply chain, where you can catch vulnerable systems/components prior to deploy, because it reduces your attack surface AND it’s cheaper. You should also have monitoring in place (AWS Config or a 3rd party app) that catches any deviation and  automatically remediates. You want cloud infrastructure that is standardized, secure and repeatable.
  3. Become an expert in understanding the cost of services in public cloud. Remember, it’s a consumption model and the cloud provider isn’t going to lose any sleep over customers hemorrhaging money due to bad design.
  4. Hybrid cloud doesn’t mean creating inefficient design patterns based on dependencies between public cloud and on-premise infrastructure. You don’t do this with traditional data centers, why would you do it with hybrid could?
  5. Hire experienced automation engineers/developers to lead your cloud migration and train staff who believe in the initiative. Send the saboteurs home early on or you’ll have organizational chaos.

If software ate the world, it burped out the Cloud. If you don’t approach this initiative with the right architecture, processes and people, there aren’t enough fancy tools in the world to help you clean up the result: organizational indigestion.

burping_cloud

 

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Moving Appsec To the Left

After spending the last year in a Product Security Architect role for a software company, I learned an important lesson:

Most application security efforts are misguided and ineffective.

While many security people have a good understanding of how to find application vulnerabilities and exploit them, they often don’t understand how software development teams work, especially in Agile/DevOps organizations. This leads to inefficiencies and a flawed program. If you really want to build secure applications, you have to meet developers where they are, by understanding how to embed security into their processes.

In some very mature Agile organizations, application security teams have started adding automated validation and testing points into their DevOps pipelines as DevSecOps (or SecDevOps, there seems to be a religious war over the proper terminology) to enforce the release of secure code. This is a huge improvement, because it ensures that you can eliminate the manual “gates” that block rapid deployment. My personal experience with this model is that it’s a work-in-progress, but a necessary aspirational goal for any application security program. Ultimately, if you can’t integrate your security testing into a CI/CD pipeline, the development process will circumvent security validation and introduce software vulnerabilities into your applications.

However, this is only one part of the effort. In Agile software development, there’s an expression, “shifting to the left,” which means moving validation to earlier parts of the development process.  While I could explain this in detail, DevSecOps.org already has an excellent post on the topic. In my role, I partnered with development teams by acting as a product manager and treating security as a customer feature, because this seemed more effective than the typical tactic of adding a bunch of non-functional requirements into a product backlog.

A common question I would receive from scrum teams is whether a security requirement should be written as a user story or simply as acceptance criteria. The short answer is, “it depends.” If the requirement translates into direct functional requirements for a user, i.e. for a public service, it is better suited as a user story with its own acceptance criteria. If the requirement is concerned with a back-end service or feature, this is better expressed as acceptance criteria in existing stories. One technique I found useful was to create a set of user security stories derived from the OWASP Application Security Verification Standard (ASVS) version 3.0.1 that could be used as a template to populate backlogs and referenced during sprint planning. I’m not talking about “evil user stories,” because I don’t find those particularly useful when working with a group of developers.

Another area where product teams struggle is whether a release should have a dedicated sprint for security or add the requirements as acceptance criteria to user stories throughout the release cycle. I recommend having a security sprint for all new or major releases due to the inclusion of time-intensive tasks such as manual penetration testing, architectural risk assessments and threat modeling. But this should be a collaborative process with a product team and  I met regularly with product owners to assist with sprint planning and backlog grooming. I also found it useful to add a security topic to the MVS (minimum viable solution) contract.

I don’t pretend to have all the answers when it comes to improving software security, but spending time in the trenches with product development teams was an enlightening experience. The biggest takeaway: security teams have to grok the DevOps principle of collaboration if we want more secure software. To further this aim, I’m posting the set of user security stories and acceptance criteria I created here. Hopefully, it will be the starting point for a useful dialogue with your own development teams.

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